Over a century ago, Mahatma Gandhi inspired the world with a new mass means of liberation of the oppressed. His primary motivation arose from the virtue of nonviolence; ahiṃsā in Sanskrit. It served him to humanely liberate India from British rule. However, this ethical virtue stirred the country long before neo-Hinduism. It was a significant meditative practice and prerequisite for religious life back in ancient times. This research is the last one in the series. It briefly presents evidence from different periods produced by a host of systems exchanging the ideas—on nonviolence.
Brahmanism, Jainism and Buddhism are traditions indigenous to ancient India; while they share common origins, they developed distinct worldviews and methodologies. The purpose of this research is to explore their historical, semantic and doctrinal development and demonstrate links between their meditation systems. This second part of the series is centred around the exchange and divergence of the concept of liberation, and its corresponding beliefs and practices.
The Bhagavadgītā of the Mahābhārata is a post-Vedic text seeking to affirm Brahmanism. It achieves it through a revision of the religious and philosophical doctrines of its milieu. It is the first material to comprehensively promote worldly activity by adopting yoga—appropriated from ascetic-renunciatory settings. The modernised yogic methods and orientations, weaved into Vedic dharma, are the prime focus. This research examines their composition by relying on a selection of academic translations.
This research evaluates yoga’s historical development and discerns continuities and discontinuities within the practice. Prominence is given to changing attitudes towards physical mortification and cultivation over the period of 2,500 years. In addition to the exposition of the development of body ideals, this essay attempts to recognise and combine yoga’s substantial legacy with the demands of the present-day world.